My plans for today: After school I collected my glasses and we drove to my grandmother. I am really looking forward to go to the fest in Frankfurt! Even one of my acquaintance makes a trip with her class to Frankfurt because of the Einigkeitsfest. The light show at 9pm is said to be awesome. My grandmother does not wanna come with us. I will let myself surprise. It is unbelievable for me that Germany was spilt in 2 parts once.
After WWII the winners (USA, Soviet Union, France and GB) were divided over their political interests USA, France and GB founded the Bundesrepublik Deutschland (BRD) and the Soviet Union the Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR). The BRD orientated itself to the West, that means with the help of the USA by the currency reform and the Marshall plan got the living standards higher in the BRD.
The system of government of the DDR became socialism. The party who decided for the country in the interests of the Soviet Union was called SED. To secure that they keep the power, the founded the Staatssicherheit (Stasi). Its tasks were to chase and suppress political opponents. The DDR got all public ground and introduced the Fünfjahresplan, which regulated the distribution and the production of food for 5 years and the Planwirtschaft, which should prevent a gap between poor and rich. The Fünfjahresplan did not work out so the work got harder but for less money. This caused demonstration for a new government, which were terminated by the Soviet Union.
The USA wanted to thwart the communism which was spread by the Soviet Union. Not only this aspect but also the Alleinvertretungsanspruch, which said that the BRD is the political power of both countries, with that the BRD did not accept the DDR under international law. They were tributary to two totally different countries with different goals. Although Stalin suggest that BRD and DDR could be united again the BRD declared this offer because it was afraid to get a socialistic system of government, too. Because of their differences and to prevent that more people move to the BRD because of the higher living standards there the DDR builded the Wall at the 13th of August 1961. And it got very difficult to leave the DDR.
The new Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt tried to approximate to the DDR.
He did not want that the contact between the citizens of each countries break.More and more other countries accepted the DDR and the BRD was resolute to act. They both accepted each other through the Grundlagenvertrag. It accepted the borders and the policy for a peaceful cohabitation were generally agreed. The goal of the BRD was one united nation with the DDR. In 1973 DDR and BRD became part of the United Nations.
The general of secretary of the DDR Erich Hoenecker was concerned that the much visitors weaken the cohesion of the DDR and he wanted to isolate the DDR so they tried to ban the word Deutsch (German) from everything which was official and expanded the Stasi.
At the communal vote 1989 the citizens were able to vote for candidates of just one party. Everyone who wanted to use a polling both were suspected to be a political opponent. This was the time when the people protested about the vote fixing and the whole system. Hoencker had to step down but the even the new government was not able to stop the Montagsdemonstrationen (protests every monday). So the borders got opened and the Wall fell on November 9 1989.
The basic things were set and the winner of the WWII had to agree on the unification of BRD and DDR. So France, USA, GB and after long negotiations even the Soviet Union and also DDR and BRD signed the Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag. The Einigungsvertrag allowed the unification of BRD and DDR on October 3 1990. Because of this we celebrate like the Americans the 4th of July on October 3 our Tag der Deutschen Einheit.
If you wonder what was the national holiday before (like me) it was the 7th October (the founding of the state after WWII) in the DDR and the 17th June in the BRD to remember the demonstration in the DDR 1953. In the National socialism was it the 1st May (Day of work) because Hitler decreased the number of unemployed a lot. Before that in the Weimarer Republik was it August 11 because on this day was the constitution signed. (1919)
So for all have a nice saturday und für alle Deutschen: einen schönen Einheitstag und ein schönes Fest (egal wo Berlin, Frankfurt,…)! 😉